Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies

Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Aug. 31, 2015
Significant Accounting Policies [Text Block]

Significant Accounting Policies


Basis of Consolidation

The consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of the Company, its wholly-owned subsidiary, Lexaria CanPharm Corp. which was incorporated on April 4, 2014 under the laws of Canada, and 51%-owned subsidiary Poviva Tea, LLC which was incorporated on December 12, 2014, under the laws of the State of Nevada. All significant inter-company balances and transactions have been eliminated.


Principles of Accounting

These consolidated financial statements are stated in U.S. dollars and have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles.


Revenue Reconition

The Company uses the sales method of accounting for natural gas and oil revenues. Under this method, revenues are recognized upon the passage of title, net of royalties. Revenues from natural gas production are recorded using the sales method. When sales volumes exceed the Company’s entitled share, an overproduced imbalance occurs. To the extent the overproduced imbalance exceeds the Company’s share of the remaining estimated proved natural gas reserves for a given property, the Company records a liability. At August 31, 2015 and October 31, 2014, the Company had no overproduced imbalances.

Revenue from the sale of helth products is generally recognizes revenue when persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists, delivery has occurred or services have been rendered, the sales price is fixed or determinable, and collectability is reasonably assured. In most cashes, these condition are met when the product is shipped to the customer or services have been rendered. The Company reports its sales net of the amount of actual sales returns and the amount of reserves established for anticipated sales returns based upon historical return rates. Sales tax collected from customers is excluded from net sales in the accompanying consolidated statements of income.


Inventories and Cost of Sales

The Company has two major classes of inventory: finished goods and raw materials. In all classes, inventory is valued at the lower of cost or market. Cost is determined on a first-in, first-out basis.

Cost of sales includes all expenditures incurred in bringing the goods to the point of sale. Inventory costs and costs of sales include direct costs of the raw material, inbound freight charges, warehousing costs, handling costs (receiving and purchasing) and utilities and overhead expenses related to the Company’s manufacturing and processing facilities.


Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash equivalents comprise certain highly liquid instruments with a maturity of three months or less when purchased. As of August 31, 2015 and August 31, 2014, cash and cash equivalents consist of cash only.



Capitalized patent costs represent legal costs incurred to establish patents. When patents reach a mature stage, any associated legal costs are comprised mostly of maintenance fees and costs of national applications and are expensed as incurred. Capitalized patent costs are amortized on a straight line basis over the remaining life of the patent. In the fiscal year ended August 31, 2015, the Company has not completed the patents application.


Oil and Gas Properties

The Company utilizes the full cost method to account for its investment in oil and gas properties. Accordingly, all costs associated with acquisition, exploration and development of oil and gas reserves, including such costs as leasehold acquisition costs, capitalized interest costs relating to unproved properties, geological expenditures, tangible and intangible development costs including direct internal costs are capitalized to the full cost pool. When the Company obtains proven oil and gas reserves, capitalized costs, including estimated future costs to develop the reserves and estimated abandonment costs, net of salvage, will be depleted on the units-of-production method using estimates of proved reserves.

Investments in unproved properties are not depleted pending determination of the existence of proved reserves. Unproved properties are assessed periodically to ascertain whether impairment has occurred. Unproved properties whose costs are individually significant are assessed individually by considering the primary lease terms of the properties, the holding period of the properties, and geographic and geologic data obtained relating to the properties. Where it is not practicable to assess individually the amount of impairment of properties for which costs are not individually significant, such properties are grouped for purposes of assessing impairment. The amount of impairment assessed is added to the costs to be amortized, or is reported as a period expense, as appropriate.

Pursuant to full cost accounting rules, the Company must perform a ceiling test periodically on its proved oil and gas assets. The ceiling test provides that capitalized costs less related accumulated depletion and deferred income taxes for each cost center may not exceed the sum of (1) the present value of future net revenue from estimated production of proved oil and gas reserves using current prices, excluding the future cash outflows associated with settling asset retirement obligations that have been accrued on the balance sheet, at a discount factor of 10%; plus (2) the cost of properties not being amortized, if any; plus (3) the lower of cost or estimated fair value of unproved properties included in the costs being amortized, if any; less (4) income tax effects related to differences in the book and tax basis of oil and gas properties. Should the net capitalized costs for a cost center exceed the sum of the components noted above, an impairment charge would be recognized to the extent of the excess capitalized costs.

Sales of proved and unproved properties are accounted for as adjustments of capitalized costs with no gain or loss recognized, unless such adjustments would significantly alter the relationship between capitalized costs and proved reserves of oil and gas, in which case the gain or loss is recognized in the statement of operations.

Exploration activities conducted jointly with others are reflected at the Company’s proportionate interest in such activities.

Cost related to site restoration programs are accrued over the life of the project.


Stock-Based Compensation

Company accounts for its stock-based compensation awards in accordance with ASC Topic 718, Compensation—Stock Compensation (“ASC 718”). ASC 718 requires all stock-based payments to employees, including grants of employee stock options, to be recognized as expense in the statements of operations based on their grant date fair values. For stock options granted to employees and to members of the Board of Directors for their services on the Board of Directors, the Company estimates the grant date fair value of each option award using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The use of the Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires management to make assumptions with respect to the expected term of the option, the expected volatility of the common stock consistent with the expected life of the option, risk-free interest rates and expected dividend yields of the common stock.

Share-based payments issued to non-employees are recorded at their fair values, and are periodically revalued as the equity instruments vest and are recognized as expense over the related service period in accordance with the provisions of ASC 718 and ASC Topic 505, Equity. For equity instruments granted to non-employees, the Company recognizes stock-based compensation expense on a straight-line basis.


Accounting Estimates

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America requires us to make certain estimates, judgments and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenue and expenses during the reporting period. Some of our accounting policies require us to make difficult and subjective judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates of matters that are inherently uncertain. These accounting policies involve critical accounting estimates because they are particularly dependent on estimates and assumptions made by management about matters that are highly uncertain at the time the accounting estimates are made. Although we have used our best estimates based on facts and circumstances available to us at the time, different estimates reasonably could have been used. Changes in the accounting estimates we use are reasonably likely to occur from time to time, which may have a material effect on the presentation of our financial condition and results of operations. Our Significant accounting estimates and assumptions are used for, but not limited to:

  useful lives of tangible and intangible assets;
  the valuation of deferred tax assets;
  share-based payment arrangements;
  proved oil and gas reserves.

We review our estimates, judgments and assumptions periodically and reflect the effects of revisions in the period in which they are deemed to be necessary. We believe that these estimates are reasonable; however, actual results could differ from these estimates


Capital Assets

The capital asset represents computer equipment which is carried at cost and is amortized over its estimated useful life of 3 years straight-line. Computer equipment is written down to its net realizable value if it is determined that its carrying value exceeds estimated future benefits to the Company.


Loss Per Share

Loss per share is computed using the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period. The Company has adopted ASC 220 “ Earnings Per Share ”. Diluted loss per share is equivalent to basic loss per share because the potential exercise of the equity-based financial instruments was anti-dilutive.


Foreign Currency Translations

The Company’s operations are located in the United States of America and Canada, and it has offices in Canada. The Company maintains its accounting records in U.S. Dollars, as follows:

At the transaction date, each asset, liability, revenue and expense that was acquired or incurred in a foreign currency is translated into U.S. dollars by the using of the exchange rate in effect at that date. At the period end, monetary assets and liabilities are translated at the exchange rate in effect at that date. The resulting foreign exchange gains and losses are included in operations.


Financial Instruments

ASC 820 “ Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures ” requires an entity to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs when measuring fair value. ASC 820 establishes a fair value hierarchy based on the level of independent, objective evidence surrounding the inputs used to measure fair value. A financial instrument’s categorization within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. ASC 820 prioritizes the inputs into three levels that may be used to measure fair value:

Level 1 - Quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;
Level 2 - Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are either directly or indirectly observable; and
Level 3 - Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity, therefore requiring an entity to develop its own assumptions about the assumptions that market participants would use in pricing.

The Company’s financial instruments consist primarily of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, loan payable and due to a related party. The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued liabilities, loans payable and due to a related party approximate their fair values due to their short maturities. The carrying values of the Company‘s long-term debt approximate their fair values based upon a comparison of the interest rate and terms of such debt to the rates and terms of debt currently available to the Company.

The Company is located in Canada, which results in exposure to market risks from changes in foreign currency rates. The financial risk is the risk to the Company’s operations that arise from fluctuations in foreign exchange rates and the degree of volatility of these rates. Currently, the Company does not use derivative instruments to reduce its exposure to foreign currency risk.


Income Taxes

The Company has adopted ASC 740, “ Income Taxes” , which requires the Company to recognize deferred tax liabilities and assets for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the Company’s financial statements or tax returns using the liability method. Under this method, deferred tax liabilities and assets are determined based on the temporary differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect in the year in which the differences are expected to reverse.


Long-Lived Assets Impairment

Long-term assets of the Company are reviewed for impairment when circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable in accordance with the guidance established in ASC 360, “ Property, Plant and Equipment ’. For assets that are to be held and used, an impairment loss is recognized when the estimated undiscounted cash flows associated with the asset or group of assets is less than their carrying value. If impairment exists, an adjustment is made to write the asset down to its fair value. Fair values are determined based on discounted cash flows or internal and external appraisals, as applicable. Assets to be disposed of are carried at the lower of carrying value or estimated net realizable value.


Asset Retirement Obligations

The Company accounts for asset retirement obligations in accordance with the provisions of ASC 410, “Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations ”. ASC 410 requires the Company to record the fair value of an asset retirement obligation as a liability in the period in which it incurs a legal obligation associated with the retirement of tangible long-lived assets that result from the acquisition, construction, development and/or normal use of the assets.


Comprehensive Income

The Company has adopted ASC 220, “ Comprehensive Income” , which establishes standards for reporting and display of comprehensive income, its components and accumulated balances. The Company is disclosing this information on its Statement of Stockholders’ Equity. Comprehensive income comprises equity changes except those transactions resulting from investments by owners and distributions to owners.


Credit risk and receivable Concentration

The Company places its cash and cash equivalent with high credit quality financial institution. As of August 31, 2015, the Company had approximately $205,606 in a bank beyond insured limit (August 31, 2014: $551,673).


Convertible Debentures

The Company accounts for its convertible debt instruments that may be settled in cash upon conversion according to ASC 470-20-30-22 which requires the proceeds from the issuance of such convertible debt instruments to be allocated between debt and equity components so that debt is discounted to reflect the Company’s non-convertible debt borrowing rate.

Further, the Company applies ASC 470-20-35-13 which requires the debt discount to be amortized over the period the convertible debt is expected to be outstanding as additional non-cash interest expense.


Commitments and Contingencies

In accordance with ASC 450-20, “Accounting for Contingencies”, the Company records accruals for such loss contingencies when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. In the event that estimates or assumptions prove to differ from actual results, adjustments are made in subsequent periods to reflect more current information. Historically, the Company has not experienced any material claims.


Discontinued Operations

The results of discontinued operations are presented separately, net of tax, from the results of ongoing operations for all periods presented. The expenses included in the results of discontinued operations are the direct operating expenses incurred by the disposed components that may be reasonably segregated from the costs of the ongoing operations of the Company. See Note 6 - Discontinued Operations for further detail.


New Accounting Pronouncements

On May 28, 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”)and the International Accounting Standards Board (the “IASB”) issued substantially converged final standards on revenue recognition. The FASB's Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), was issued in three parts: (a) Section A, “Summary and Amendments That Create Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606)and Other Assets and Deferred Costs-Contracts with Customers (Subtopic 340-40),” (b) Section B, “Conforming Amendments to Other Topics and Subtopics in the Codification and Status Tables” and (c) Section C, “Background Information and Basis for Conclusions.”

The standard outlines a single comprehensive model for entities to use in accounting for revenue arising from contracts with customers and supersedes most current revenue recognition guidance, including industry-specific guidance. The new revenue recognition guidance becomes effective for the Company on January 1, 2017, and early adoption is not permitted. Entities have the option of using either a full retrospective or a modified approach to adopt the guidance in the ASU. The Company has not yet selected a transition method and is currently evaluating the effect that the updated standard will have on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

In April 2014, the FASB issued new guidance on the definition of a discontinued operation that requires entities to provide additional disclosures about disposal transactions that do not meet the discontinued operations criteria. The new guidance narrows the focus of discontinued operations to those components that are disposed of or classified as held-for-sale and that represent a strategic shift that has or will have a major impact on the entity’s operations or financial results. The guidance is effective prospectively for all disposals or components initially classified as held-for-sale in periods beginning on or after December 15, 2014. Early adoption is permitted. Upon adoption, the Company does not believe this guidance will have a material impact on its consolidated results of operations or financial position.

In August 2014, the FASB issued new guidance on determining when and how to disclose going -concern uncertainties in the financial statements. The new guidance requires management to perform interim and annual assessments of an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year of the date the financial statements are issued. An entity must provide certain disclosures if conditions or events raise substantial doubt about its ability to continue as a going concern. The guidance is effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016 and interim periods thereafter. Early adoption is permitted. Upon adoption, the Company does not believe this guidance will have a material impact on its consolidated results of operations or financial position.

In January 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-01, Income Statement-Extraordinary and Unusual Items (Subtopic 225-20), Simplifying Income Statement Presentation by Eliminating the Concept of Extraordinary Items, which eliminates the concept of extraordinary items. Under this new guidance, entities will no longer be required to separately classify, present and disclose extraordinary events and transactions. The amendments in this update are effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2015. The Company is evaluating the impact of ASU 2015-01 and an estimate of the impact to the consolidated financial statements cannot be made at this time.

In February 2015, the FASB issued ASU No. 2015-02, "Consolidation (Topic 810): Amendments to the Consolidation Analysis"("ASU 2015-02"). ASU 2015-02 makes several modifications to the consolidation guidance for variable interest entities ("VIEs") and general partners' investments in limited partnerships, as well as modifications to the evaluation of whether limited artnerships are VIEs or voting interest entities. It is effective for annual and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2015. Early adoption is permitted.

In April 2015, FASB issued ASU 2015-03, Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs (“ASU 2015-03”). In August 2015, FASB issued ASU 2015-15, Presentation and Subsequent Measurement of Debt Issuance Costs Associated with Line-of-Credit Arrangements (“ASU 2015-15”). ASU 2015-03 will require that debt issuance costs be presented in the balance sheet as a deduction from the carrying amount of the debt. ASU 2015-15 allows an entity to present debt issuance costs associated with a revolving line of credit arrangement as an asset, regardless of whether a balance is outstanding. The recognition and measurement guidance for debt issuance costs are not affected by ASU 2015-03 or ASU 2015-15. These ASU’s are effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2015, including interim periods within that reporting period, with early adoption permitted. ASU 2015-03 will require the Company to reclassify its deferred financing costs associated with its long-term debt from other assets to long-term debt on a retrospective basis. The new standard will not affect the Company’s results of operations or cash flows.

In April 2015, FASB issued ASU 2015-04, Practical Expedient for the Measurement Date of an Employer’s Defined Benefit Obligation and Plan Assets (“ASU 2015-04”). ASU 2015-04 allows employers with a fiscal year end that does not coincide with a calendar month end to make an accounting policy election to measure defined benefit plan assets and obligations as of the end of the month closest to their fiscal year end. ASU 2015-04 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2015, including interim periods within that reporting period. Prospective application is required, and early adoption is permitted.

In July 2015, FASB issued ASU 2015-11, Simplifying the Measurement of Inventory (“ASU 2015-11”). ASU 2015-11 requires that an entity measure inventory at the lower of cost and net realizable value. This ASU does not apply to inventory measured using last-in, first-out. ASU 2015-11 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2016, including interim periods within that reporting period. The Company does not expect the new standard to have a significant impact on its consolidated financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

Accounting standards that have been issued or proposed by the FASB or other standards-setting bodies that do not require adoption until a future date are not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements upon adoption.