Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Aug. 31, 2023
|Significant Accounting Policies|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of presentation and consolidation
These consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles of the United States (“US GAAP”) and pursuant to the rules and regulations of the SEC. All amounts, unless otherwise stated, are in U.S. dollars.
These consolidated financial statements include the financial statements of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries: Lexaria Pharmaceutical Corp., Lexaria Hemp Corp., Lexaria CanPharm ULC, Lexaria Nutraceutical Corp., Poviva Corp., Lexaria CanPharm Holding Corp., and Kelowna Management Services Corp. The Company owns 83.3% of Lexaria Nicotine LLC and the remaining 16.7% is owned by Altria Ventures Inc. (an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of Altria Group, Inc.). All significant intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated upon consolidation.
Cash and cash equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash-on-hand and demand deposits with financial institutions and other short-term investments with maturities of less than three months when acquired and readily convertible to known cash amounts. The Company had no cash equivalents as of August 31, 2023 or August 31, 2022.
The Company’s marketable securities consist of investments in common stock. Investments in equity securities are reported at fair value with changes in unrecognized gains or losses included in other income (loss) on the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company accounts for its leases under ASC 842, Leases (“ASC 842”). Under this guidance, arrangements meeting the definition of a lease are classified as operating or financing leases, and are recorded on the consolidated balance sheet as both a right of use asset and lease liability.
We determined the initial classification and measurement of our right-of-use assets and lease liabilities at the lease commencement date and thereafter if modified. The lease term includes any renewal options and termination options that we are reasonably certain to exercise. The present value of lease payments is determined by using the interest rate implicit in the lease, if that rate is readily determinable; otherwise, we use our incremental borrowing rate. The incremental borrowing rate is determined by using the rate of interest that we would pay to borrow on a collateralized basis an amount equal to the lease payments for a similar term and in a similar economic environment.
Operating lease expenses are recognized on a straight-line basis, unless the right-of-use asset has been impaired, over the reasonably certain lease term based on the total lease payments. They are included in operating expenses in the consolidated statements of operations.
For operating leases that reflect impairment, we will recognize the amortization of the right-of-use asset on a straight-line basis over the remaining lease term with rent expense still included in operating expenses in the consolidated statements of operations. For all leases, rent payments that are based on a fixed index or rate at the lease commencement date are included in the measurement of lease assets and lease liabilities at the lease commencement date.
We have elected the practical expedient to not separate lease and non-lease components. Our non-lease components are primarily related to property taxes and maintenance, which vary based on future outcomes, and thus differences to original estimates are recognized in rent expense when incurred.
Capitalized intellectual property costs include those incurred with respect to both pending and granted patents filed in the United States. When patent applications are filed, the directly related capitalized costs are amortized on a straight-line basis over an estimated economic life of 20 years.
Equipment is stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and impairment and depreciated using the straight-line method over the useful lives of the various asset classes. Laboratory and computer equipment and office furniture are depreciated over 3-10 years. Certain production equipment is depreciated by units of production method. Leasehold improvements are amortized over the term of the related leases, or the economic life of the improvements, whichever is shorter.
Impairment of long-lived assets
Long-lived assets, including equipment and intangible assets, namely the Company’s patents, are assessed for potential impairment when there is evidence that events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognized when the carrying amount of the long-lived asset is not recoverable and exceeds its fair value. The carrying amount of a long-lived asset is not recoverable if it exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the asset. Any required impairment loss is measured as the amount by which the carrying amount of the long-lived asset exceeds its fair value and is recorded as a reduction in the carrying value of the related asset and a charge to the profit or loss. Intangible assets with indefinite lives are tested for impairment annually and in interim periods if certain events occur indicating that the carrying value of the intangible assets may be impaired.
Licensing revenue from intellectual property
Our revenues from licenses that grant the right to access our intellectual property, which we consider symbolic licenses of IP, are recognized over time following the transfer and use of our patented infusion technology DehydraTECH. Royalty revenues are recognized in the period in which our licensees sell the related products and recognize the related revenue.
Usage fees from intellectual property
We recognize usage fees from B2B clients in the period in which the counterparty completes the manufacturing which incorporates DehydraTECH enabled APIs into the related product. We generally recognize revenue when we have satisfied all contractual obligations and are reasonably assured of collecting the resulting receivable. Non-refundable minimum fees are recognized as revenue over the period to which they apply.
We generally recognize revenue when we have satisfied all contractual obligations and are reasonably assured of collecting the resulting receivable. We are often entitled to bill our customers and receive payment from our customers in advance of recognizing the revenue.
Cost of sales
Cost of sales includes all expenditures incurred in bringing the goods to the point of sale This includes third-party manufacturing and handling costs, direct costs of the raw material, inbound freight charges, warehousing costs, and applicable overhead expenses.
Research and development
Research and development costs are expensed as incurred. These expenditures are comprised of both in-house research programs and through third-party contracts including consultants, academic and non-profit institutions, contract manufacturing, and other expenses.
Intellectual property expenses
Non-capitalizable costs associated with intellectual property-related matters are expensed as incurred and included in general and administrative expenses within the consolidated statements of operations.
The Company accounts for its stock-based compensation awards whereby all stock-based grants are recognized as expenses in the consolidated statements of operations based on the fair value at grant date subject to vesting dates and amortized over the related vesting period. The grant date fair value of each option award is estimated using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The use of the Black-Scholes option-pricing model requires management to make assumptions with respect to the expected term of the option, the expected volatility of the common stock consistent with the expected life of the option, risk-free interest rates and expected dividend yields of the common stock.
Foreign currency translation
The Company maintains its accounting records in US dollars. At the transaction date, each asset, liability, revenue, and expense that was acquired or incurred in a foreign currency is translated into US dollars by using the exchange rate in effect at that date; at the year end, monetary assets and liabilities are translated at the exchange rate in effect at that date. The resulting foreign exchange gains and losses are included within the consolidated statements of operations.
Loss per share
The calculation of loss per share uses the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the year. Diluted net income per share includes the effect, if any, from the potential exercise or conversion of securities, such as restricted stock and stock options, which would result in the issuance of incremental shares of common stock. Diluted loss per share is equivalent to basic loss per share if the potential exercise of the equity-based financial instruments is anti-dilutive.
The Company recognizes deferred tax liabilities and assets for the expected future tax consequences of events that have been recognized in the Company’s financial statements or tax returns using the liability method. Under this method, deferred tax liabilities and assets are determined based on the temporary differences between the financial statement and tax bases of assets and liabilities using enacted tax rates in effect in the year in which the differences are expected to reverse.
When measuring fair value, the Company seeks to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. This establishes a fair value hierarchy based on the level of independent objective evidence surrounding the inputs used to measure fair value. A financial instrument’s categorization within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Inputs are prioritized into three levels used to measure fair value:
The Company’s financial instruments consist primarily of cash, marketable securities, accounts receivable and payable, accrued liabilities and loan payable. The carrying amounts of instruments approximate their fair values due to their short maturities or quoted market prices.
The Company’s headquarters and operations are located in Canada which results in exposure to market risks from fluctuations in foreign currency rates. The foreign currency exchange risk is the financial risk to the Company’s operations that arise from fluctuations in foreign exchange rates and the degree of volatility of these rates. Currently, the Company does not use derivative instruments to reduce its exposure to foreign currency risk as the impact of rate changes for USD/CAD dollars is not expected to be material.
Credit risk and customer concentration
The Company places its cash with a high credit quality financial institution. Periodically, the Company may carry cash balances at such financial institution in excess of the federally insured limit of $250,000. The Company has not experienced losses on these accounts and management believes, based upon the quality of the financial institution, that the credit risk with regard to these deposits is not significant.
In the year ended August 31, 2023, four customers accounted for 95% (2022 – one customer was accounted for 100%) of consolidated revenues. At fiscal year-end 2023, we had $24,635 (2022 - $37,248) in license fees receivable. The Company did not incur any bad debt expense in fiscal 2022 or 2023.
As of August 31, 2023, the Company had $102,051 (2022 - $84,162) in sales tax receivable. The Company considers its credit risk to be low for such receivables.
Commitments and contingencies
The Company policy is to record accruals for any such loss contingencies when it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of loss can be reasonably estimated. In the event that estimates or assumptions prove to differ from actual results, adjustments are made in subsequent periods to reflect more current information. The Company, from time to time, may be subject to legal claims and proceedings related to matters arising in the ordinary course of business. Management has no knowledge of any such claim against the Company with, at minimum, a reasonable possibility that a material loss may be incurred.
Certain amounts in the prior period have been reclassified to conform with current period presentation.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/disclosureRef